The Kyoto Protocol Is An International Agreement That Limits Cfc Production

The agreement is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted at the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, which has not set legally binding restrictions on emissions or enforcement mechanisms. Only parties to the UNFCCC can become parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 at the third meeting of the UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP 3) in Kyoto (In May 2012, the United States, Japan, Russia and Canada announced that they would not sign the second Kyoto commitment period. [147] In November 2012, Australia confirmed that it would participate in a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol and New Zealand confirmed that this would not be the case. [148] One of the environmental problems associated with the EIT is the large excess of available quotas. Russia, Ukraine and the new EU-12 Member States (Annex I “EIT”: Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine)[51]:59 have a quota surplus, while many OECD countries have a deficit. [50]24 Some of the surplus ITE see them as potential compensation for the trauma of their economic restructuring. [50]:25 When the Kyoto Treaty was negotiated, it was recognized that EIA emission targets could lead them to have excessive quotas. [52] This surplus of quotas was considered by the IES to be a “head freedom” for the growth of their economies. [53] However, the surplus has also been described as “hot air” by some, a term that Russia (a country with an estimated surplus of 3.1 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent) considers “quite offensive”. [54] The national emissions targets set by the Kyoto Protocol exclude international air and sea transport.

Parties to the Kyoto Protocol can use changes in agriculture, land use and forestry (UTCATF) to achieve their goals. [71] Utcatical activities are also called sink activities. Indeed, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change on Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry estimates that since 1750, one-third of global warming has been caused by land use changes. [73] Specific criteria apply to the definition of forestry under the Kyoto Protocol. This indicator measures the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances in Europe. SDOs are long-lived chemicals that contain chlorine or/and bromine and destroy the stratospheric ozone layer. The weakest nations – the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) – have insisted that developed nations be cut deep and standardized in order to reduce emissions as much as possible. [81] Countries that had supported the differentiation of the objectives had different ideas on how to calculate them and many different indicators were proposed. [83] Two examples are the differentiation of targets on the basis of gross domestic product (GDP) and differentiation by energy intensity (energy consumption per economic unit). [83] The Montreal Protocol is part of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna Convention). The Vienna Convention was adopted in 1985 following an international debate on scientific discoveries in the 1970s and 1980s, highlighting the harmful effects of human activity on ozone levels in the stratosphere and the discovery of the hole in the ozone layer. The aim is to promote cooperation on the harmful effects of human activities on the ozone layer.

In 1990, a technology and economic evaluation body was also established as an advisory body on technology and economics for parties to the Montreal Protocol. [19] At the request of the parties, the Technology and Economic Assessment Group (TEAP) provides technical information on the alternative technologies examined and used to effectively eliminate the use of ozone-depleting substances (cFC and