Since the Act of Ratification by the Government of India took place in 1967, the date prior to that of the same Act of Ratification by the Government of Indonesia, which took place on 26 October 1968, as indicated in the abovementioned communication from the Embassy, that later date of ratification must, for simple and practical reasons, be regarded as the final date for the entry into force of the Trade Agreement. As article X states, wise countries, traditionally committed to multilateralism, such as Japan, South Korea and Singapore, reluctantly accepted this reality more than a decade ago and abandoned their almost exclusive focus on multilateral trade negotiations to achieve their trade goals. They moved on to revolutionary free trade agreements, Japan and Singapore with the Trans-Pacific Partnership and South Korea with a bilateral agreement with the United States. Free trade among the 164 members of the World Trade Organization is an economic “first solution”. But it`s not in sight. The Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations died as early as December 2008 and April 2011, when the last major texts of the modality were published – and were hated. These negotiations were buried in March 2018, when America declared that it would no longer participate in the round. Nevertheless, these agreements tend not to have commercial significance. India persists in treating goods “duty-free, quota-free, immediately after entry into force” (DFQF-FEI), insists on long lists of product exemptions, and renounces services or liberalization of government procurement. This Article shall not apply to concessions made to ships engaged in coastal trade of a Contracting Party.
(i) the transit is justified for geographical reasons or by considerations related exclusively to transport requirements; (ii) the products have not been marketed or consumed there; and (iii) the products have not undergon any treatment other than unloading and transhipment or any operation necessary to keep them in good condition. Ironically, India could show allegiance to multilateralism by fully implementing Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. It is the GATT provision that allows WTO members to conclude free trade agreements or customs unions, subject to two key rules. (The third and fourth rules, which ensure the implementation of the agreement within a reasonable period of time, and the communication of a new agreement to the WTO secretariat are not problematic.) The first rule is that a free trade agreement or customs union should cover “essentially all trade”. This sentence is vague, that is, it has no definite meaning….